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91st United States Congress

91st United States Congress

The 91st United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C., from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1971, during the final weeks of the presidency of Lyndon Johnson and the first two years of the first presidency of Richard Nixon.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the 1960 United States census.

Both chambers had a Democratic majority - albeit with losing their supermajority status in the Senate. With Richard Nixon being sworn in as president on January 20, 1969, this ended the Democrats' overall federal government trifecta that they had held since the 87th Congress.

Major events

  • January 20, 1969: Richard M. Nixon became 37th President of the United States.

Major legislation

  • December 30, 1969: Tax Reform Act of 1969, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–172
  • December 30, 1969: Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–173
  • January 1, 1970: National Environmental Policy Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–190
  • April 1, 1970: Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–222
  • April 3, 1970: Environmental Quality Improvement Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–224
  • May 21, 1970: Airport and Airway Development Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–258, title I
  • August 12, 1970: Postal Reorganization Act (United States Postal Service), Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–375
  • August 15, 1970: Economic Stabilization Act, Title II of Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–379, 84 Stat. 799
  • September 22, 1970: District of Columbia Delegate Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–405
  • October 15, 1970: Organized Crime Control Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–452 (including the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act ("RICO")
  • October 15, 1970: Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1970, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–453
  • October 26, 1970: Bank Secrecy Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–508
  • October 26, 1970: Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970
  • October 27, 1970: Controlled Substances Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–513
  • October 30, 1970: Rail Passenger Service Act (Amtrak), Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–518
  • December 24, 1970: Family Planning Services and Population Research Act of 1970, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–572
  • December 24, 1970: Plant Variety Protection Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–577
  • December 29, 1970: Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–596
  • December 31, 1970: Clean Air Act Extension, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–604
  • December 31, 1970: Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–609, including title VII, National Urban Policy and New Community Development Act of 1970
  • January 12, 1971: Foreign Military Sales Act of 1971, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–672
  • January 13, 1971: Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act, Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 91–695

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


House of Representatives



  • President: Hubert Humphrey (D), until January 20, 1969
    • Spiro Agnew (R), from January 20, 1969
  • President pro tempore: Richard Russell Jr. (D)
  • Permanent Acting President pro tempore: Lee Metcalf (D)

Majority (Democratic) leadership

  • Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield
  • Majority Whip: Ted Kennedy
  • Caucus Secretary: Robert Byrd

Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader: Everett Dirksen, until September 7, 1969
    • Hugh Scott, from September 24, 1969
  • Minority Whip: Hugh Scott, until September 24, 1969
    • Robert P. Griffin, from September 24, 1969
  • Republican Conference Chairman: Margaret Chase Smith
  • Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young
  • National Senatorial Committee Chair: John Tower
  • Policy Committee Chairman: Gordon Allott

House of Representatives

  • Speaker: John W. McCormack (D)

Majority (Democratic) leadership

  • Majority Leader: Carl Albert
  • Majority Whip: Hale Boggs
  • Democratic Caucus Chairman: Dan Rostenkowski
  • Democratic Caucus Secretary: Leonor Sullivan
  • Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael A. Feighan

Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader: Gerald Ford
  • Minority Whip: Leslie C. Arends
  • Republican Conference Chairman: John B. Anderson
  • Republican Conference Secretary: Richard H. Poff
  • Policy Committee Chairman: John Jacob Rhodes
  • Republican Campaign Committee Chairman: Bob Wilson


  • House Democratic Caucus
  • Senate Democratic Caucus
Collection James Bond 007


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Members of the House are listed by district.


Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1970; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1972; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1974.

House of Representatives

Some members of the House of Representatives were elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, and others were elected from districts, as listed here as the districts existed at this time.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress


  • Replacements: 3
    • Democratic: 2 seat net gain
    • Republican: 2 seat net loss
  • Deaths: 1
  • Resignations: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 3

House of Representatives

  • Replacements: 14
    • Democratic: 2 seat net gain
    • Republican: 2 seat net loss
  • Deaths: 10
  • Resignations: 8
  • Total seats with changes: 18


Lists of committees and their party leaders for members of the House and Senate committees can be found through the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of this article. The directory after the pages of terms of service lists committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and, after that, House/Senate committee assignments. On the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


  • Aeronautical and Space Sciences (Chair: Clinton P. Anderson; Ranking Member: Margaret Chase Smith)
  • Agriculture and Forestry (Chair: Allen J. Ellender; Ranking Member: George D. Aiken)
  • Appropriations (Chair: Richard B. Russell; Ranking Member: Milton R. Young)
  • Armed Services (Chair: John C. Stennis; Ranking Member: Margaret Chase Smith)
  • Banking and Currency (Chair: John J. Sparkman; Ranking Member: Wallace F. Bennett)
  • Commerce (Chair: Warren G. Magnuson; Ranking Member: Norris Cotton)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: Joseph D. Tydings; Ranking Member: Winston L. Prouty)
  • Equal Educational Opportunity (Select) (Chair:[data missing]; Ranking Member:[data missing])
  • Finance (Chair: Russell B. Long; Ranking Member: John J. Williams)
  • Foreign Relations (Chair: J. William Fulbright; Ranking Member: George D. Aiken)
  • Government Operations (Chair: John Little McClellan; Ranking Member: Karl E. Mundt)
  • Interior and Insular Affairs (Chair: Henry M. Jackson; Ranking Member: Gordon Allott)
  • Judiciary (Chair: James O. Eastland; Ranking Member: Everett M. Dirksen, then Roman Hruska)
  • Labor and Public Welfare (Chair: Ralph W. Yarborough; Ranking Member: Jacob K. Javits)
  • Nutrition and Human Needs (Select) (Chair: George S. McGovern)
  • Post Office and Civil Service (Chair: Gale W. McGee; Ranking Member: Hiram Fong)
  • Public Works (Chair: Jennings Randolph; Ranking Member: John Sherman Cooper)
  • Rules and Administration (Chair: B. Everett Jordan; Ranking Member: Carl T. Curtis)
  • Small Business (Select) (Chair: Alan Bible)
  • Standards and Conduct (Select) (Chair: John C. Stennis; Vice Chairman: Wallace F. Bennett)
  • Whole

House of Representatives

  • Agriculture (Chair: William R. Poage; Ranking Member: Page Belcher)
  • Appropriations (Chair: George H. Mahon; Ranking Member: Frank T. Bow)
  • Armed Services (Chair: L. Mendel Rivers; Ranking Member: William H. Bates)
  • Banking and Currency (Chair: Wright Patman; Ranking Member: William B. Widnall)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: John L. McMillan; Ranking Member: Ancher Nelsen)
  • Education and Labor (Chair: Carl D. Perkins; Ranking Member: William H. Ayres)
  • Foreign Affairs (Chair: Thomas E. Morgan; Ranking Member: E. Ross Adair)
  • Government Operations (Chair: William L. Dawson; Ranking Member: Florence P. Dwyer)
  • House Administration (Chair: Samuel N. Friedel; Ranking Member: Glenard P. Lipscomb)
  • House Beauty Shop (Select) (Chair: Martha W. Griffiths)
  • House Restaurant (Select) (Chairman: N/A; Ranking Member: N/A)
  • Interior and Insular Affairs (Chair: Wayne N. Aspinall; Ranking Member: John P. Saylor)
  • Internal Security (Chair: Richard H. Ichord; Ranking Member: John M. Ashbrook)
  • Interstate and Foreign Commerce (Chair: Harley O. Staggers; Ranking Member: William L. Springer)
  • Judiciary (Chair: Emanuel Celler; Ranking Member: William M. McCulloch)
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries (Chair: Edward A. Garmatz; Ranking Member: William S. Mailliard)
  • Parking (Select) (Chair: Bernice F. Sisk)
  • Post Office and Civil Service (Chair: Thaddeus J. Dulski; Ranking Member: Robert J. Corbett)
  • Public Works (Chair: George Hyde Fallon; Ranking Member: William C. Cramer)
  • Rules (Chair: William M. Colmer; Ranking Member: H. Allen Smith)
  • Science and Astronautics (Chair: George P. Miller; Ranking Member: James G. Fulton)
  • Small Business (Select) (Chair: Joe L. Evins)
  • Standards of Official Conduct (Chair: Charles Melvin Price; Ranking Member: Leslie C. Arends)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Olin E. Teague; Ranking Member: Charles M. Teague)
  • Ways and Means (Chair: Wilbur D. Mills; Ranking Member: John W. Byrnes)
  • Whole

Joint committees

  • Atomic Energy (Chair: Rep. Chet Holifield; Vice Chair: Sen. John O. Pastore)
  • Congressional Operations
  • Defense Productions (Chair: Sen. John J. Sparkman; Vice Chair: Rep. Wright Patman)
  • Disposition of Executive Papers
  • Economic (Chair: Rep. Wright Patman; Vice Chair: Sen. William Proxmire)
  • Immigration and Nationality Policy
  • Legislative Budget (Chair: Rep. Wilbur D. Mills)
  • The Library (Chair: Rep. Samuel N. Friedel; Vice Chair: Sen. B. Everett Jordan)
  • Navajo-Hopi Indian Administration
  • Printing (Chair: Sen. B. Everett Jordan; Vice Chair: Rep. Samuel N. Friedel)
  • Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures (Chair: Rep. George H. Mahon)
  • Taxation (Chair: Rep. Wilbur D. Mills; Vice Chair: Sen. Russell B. Long)


See also

  • List of new members of the 91st United States Congress
  • 1968 United States elections (elections leading to this Congress)
    • 1968 United States presidential election
    • 1968 United States Senate elections
    • 1968 United States House of Representatives elections
  • 1970 United States elections (elections during this Congress, leading to the next Congress)
    • 1970 United States Senate elections
    • 1970 United States House of Representatives elections



  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: Congressional History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
  • House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 91st Congress (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  • Congressional Pictorial Directory for the 91st Congress.
  • Official Congressional Directory for the 91st Congress, 1st Session.
  • Official Congressional Directory for the 91st Congress, 2nd Session.

Text submitted to CC-BY-SA license. Source: 91st United States Congress by Wikipedia (Historical)